Artikler du ikke har hørt om #469 | Foreldres utdanning og din suksess

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I min RSS-leser ligger det en folder som ofte har 60 uleste artikler. En dag for lenge siden satt jeg opp en automatisk kildesamler for vitenskapelige artikler. Så når antallet uleste artikler nærmer seg 100 tar jeg en titt innom. Her er derfor noen av artiklene som jeg synes er interessante, og som kanskje gir deg et lite innblikk i hva det forskes på i forskjellige økonomiske fora (meg).

  1. Vi begynner med noe som det forskes mye på, nemlig utdanning. Jeg husker at slike artikler blir trukket frem i anvendt økonomifagene, altså for å diskutere metode. Dette er en artikkel som tar for seg ulike studier som forsøker å si noe om foreldres utdanning påvirker barnas utdanning. Det er et minefelt for feil i å estimere denne effekten, og det er mange måter å samle inn data på. For eksempel bruker en artikkel et register av tvillinger.

    The Causal Effect of Parent’s Schooling on Children’s Schooling

    Recent studies that aim to estimate the causal link between the education of parents and their children provide evidence that is far from conclusive. This paper explores why. There are a number of possible explanations. One is that these studies rely on different data sources, gathered in different countries at different times. Another one is that these studies use different identification strategies. Three identification strategies that are currently in use rely on: identical twins; adoptees; and instrumental variables. In this paper we apply each of these three strategies to one particular Swedish data set. The purpose is threefold: (i) explain the disparate evidence in the recent literature; (ii) learn more about the quality of each identification procedure; and (iii) get at better perspective about intergenerational effects of education. We find that the three identification strategies all produce intergenerational schooling estimates that are lower than the corresponding OLS estimates, indicating the importance of accounting for ability bias. But interestingly, when applying the three methods to the same data set, we are able to fully replicate the discrepancies across methods found in the previous literature. Our findings therefore indicate that the estimated impact of parental education on that of their child in Sweden does depend on identification, which suggests that country and cohort differences do not lie behind the observed disparities. Finally, we conclude that income is a mechanism linking parent’s and children’s schooling, that can partly explain the diverging results across methods.

    Inntekt. Hvorfor er jeg ikke overrasket?

  2. I arbeidsmarkedet foregår det mye interessant. Denne artikkelen fra Thierry Lallemand og François Rycx tar for seg om hvorvidt yngere og/eller eldre ansatte er skadelig for produktiviteten i belgiske bedrifter. Det er ikke snakk om hvorvidt en aldersgruppe er mer skadelig, men det handler om alderssammensetningen i bedriften. Her fra konklusjonen:

    Empirical findings, based on two cross-sectional employer-employee matched data sets for 1995 and 2003, show that a higher share of young workers within firms is favourable for productivity. In contrast, an older workforce age structure is found to be harmful for firm value added per capita. These findings are robust to the potential simultaneity problem between firm productivity and workforce age structure. We addressed this issue using a unique panel data set. Finally, additional results indicate that an increase in the share of young (old) workers has a stronger positive (negative) effect on the productivity of ICT firms than non-ICT firms.
    A better understanding of the influence of fixed unobserved characteristics of firms on productivity is surely a very promising question for future research. Furthermore, it would be interesting to examine whether age effects on productivity vary according to firm size. Yet, at the moment these issues cannot be investigated for the Belgian economy because of data limitations.

    (ICT = Information Communications Tecnology)

  3. Dette er en fersk artikkel fra Norge. Det handler om sysselsetting. Det er Tom Kornstad, Ragnar Nymoen og Terje Skjerpen fra UiO som lurer på hvordan makroøkonomien og andre uforutsette sjokk påvirker kvinners sannsynlighet for å jobbe. Lettere sagt, er det kvinners valg eller (økonomiske) omstendigheter som påvirker sannsynligheten for å være i jobb. Er det økonomien, eller er det antall barn, utdannelse, bygd eller by, mannens jobbsituasjon, erfaring osv. som bestemmer sannsynligheten for en kvinne å være i jobb?

    Resultatet er ikke tilsynelatende enkelt å tolke:

    However in terms of sequences of “good and bad times” the results are the same. In both samples the effects on individual employment probabilities are small, which confirms the insight that most individuals are able to hold on to a job through a macroeconomic downturns. Nevertheless, the aggregate number of people who become unemployed in those periods may be non-trivial, as our calculations suggest.

    We also considered models that use the aggregate female and male unemployment rates as ‘sufficient’ variables for the chance element in individual employment outcomes. The results show that this is more or less the case, and the evidence from the two models is mutually supporting the interpretation that chance effects can play a role in empirical models of individual employment probabilities.

  4. Den siste jeg skal nevne er vannforskning. Vel, vann og litt psykologi. I Australia, et land kjent for tørke og mangel på vann, forskes det på effektene av en offentlig kampanje for å spare vann under tørke. Det er Emma Aisbett og Ralf Steinhauser ved Australian National University som lurer. Det er en offentlig kampanje som stresser det frivillige i konserveringen av vann til gode for alle.

    Det viser seg at informasjon om vannstand er selve gullstandarden i ren offentlig informasjon. Det er ingen som stiller spørsmål om kommunen luver om vannstanden, eller om vannmålingene kan være skremselsinformasjon. Det er rett og slett for troverdig, og dermed den mest effektive måten å tvinge frem vannsparing:

    On the first point, if a significant proportion of the demand reductions associated with manda- tory restrictions are actually due to voluntary (e.g. indoor-use) reductions, then current estimates of the efficiency losses caused by mandatory restrictions are significantly over-estimated. On the second point, it seems implausible that the voluntary conservation we observe in response to low storage levels would have occurred in the absence of an information campaign. Thus our findings support the conclusions of Syme et al. (2000), who note that survey-based studies find information campaigns associated with demand reductions of around 25%, and conclude that the lack of effect identified in econometric studies is due to limitations in their methodology – including the inadequacy of ‘information campaign’ dummy variables in regressions.

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